Middle East

Coordinates: 29°N 41°E / 29°N 41°E / 29; 41

Middle East
Middle East
Area7,207,575 km2 (2,782,860 sq mi)
Population371 million (2010)[1]
Countries
Dependencies
Languages
Time zonesUTC+02:00, UTC+03:00, UTC+03:30, UTC+04:00, UTC+04:30
Largest citiesLargest cities:
Map of the Middle East between Africa, Europe, Central Asia, and Southern Asia.
Middle East map of Köppen climate classification.

The Middle East (Arabic: الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233: ash-Sharq al-Awsat) is a geopolitical term[2] that commonly refers to the region spanning Arabia (including the Arabian Peninsula and Bahrain), Asia Minor (Asian part of Turkey except Hatay Province), East Thrace (European part of Turkey), Egypt, Iran, the Levant (including Ash-Shām and Cyprus), Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), and the Socotra Archipelago (a part of Yemen). The term came into widespread usage as a replacement of the term Near East (as opposed to the Far East) beginning in the early 20th century. The term "Middle East" has led to some confusion over its changing definitions, and has been viewed by some to be discriminatory[3] or too Eurocentric.[4] The region includes the vast majority of the territories included in the closely associated definition of Western Asia (including Iran), but without the South Caucasus, and additionally includes all of Egypt (not just the Sinai Region).

Most Middle Eastern countries (13 out of 18) are part of the Arab world. The most populous countries in the region are Egypt, Iran, and Turkey, while Saudi Arabia is the largest Middle Eastern country by area. The history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, with the geopolitical importance of the region being recognized for millennia.[5][6][7] Several major religions have their origins in the Middle East, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.[8] Arabs constitute the main socioethnic grouping in the region,[9] followed by Turks, Persians, Kurds, Azeris, Copts, Jews, Assyrians, Iraqi Turkmen, and Greek Cypriots.

The Middle East generally has a hot, arid climate, especially in the Peninsula and Egyptian regions. Several major rivers providing irrigation to support agriculture in limited areas here such as the Nile Delta in Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds of Mesopotamia (Iraq, Kuwait, and eastern Syria), and most of what is known as the Fertile Crescent. Conversely the Levantine coast and most of Turkey have more temperate, oceanic and wetter climates. Most of the countries that border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of petroleum, with monarchs of the Arabian Peninsula in particular benefiting economically from petroleum exports. Because of the arid climate and heavy reliance on the fossil fuel industry, the Middle East is both a heavy contributor to climate change and a region expected to be severely negatively impacted by it.

Other concepts of the region exist including the broader the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), which includes states of the Maghreb and Sudan, or the "Greater Middle East" which additionally also includes parts of East Africa, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and sometimes the South Caucasus and Central Asia.

  1. ^ Population 1971–2010 (pdf Archived 2012-01-06 at the Wayback Machine p. 89) IEA (OECD/ World Bank) (original population ref OECD/ World Bank e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 p. 57)
  2. ^ Beaumont, Peter; Blake, Gerald H; Wagstaff, J. Malcolm. The Middle East: A Geographical Study. Second Edition. London: David Fulton. 1988.
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference dont was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference hanafi was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ Cairo, Michael F. The Gulf: The Bush Presidencies and the Middle East Archived 2015-12-22 at the Wayback Machine University Press of Kentucky, 2012 ISBN 978-0-8131-3672-1 p xi.
  6. ^ Government Printing Office. History of the Office of the Secretary of Defense: The formative years, 1947–1950 Archived 2015-12-22 at the Wayback Machine ISBN 978-0-16-087640-0 p 177
  7. ^ Kahana, Ephraim. Suwaed, Muhammad. Historical Dictionary of Middle Eastern Intelligence Archived 2015-12-23 at the Wayback Machine Scarecrow Press, 13 apr. 2009 ISBN 978-0-8108-6302-6 p. xxxi.
  8. ^ MacQueen, Benjamin (2013). An Introduction to Middle East Politics: Continuity, Change, Conflict and Co-operation. SAGE. p. 5. ISBN 9781446289761. The Middle East is the cradle of the three monotheistic faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
  9. ^ Shoup, John A. (2011-10-31). Ethnic Groups of Africa and the Middle East: An Encyclopedia. ISBN 978-1-59884-362-0. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2014.