Harvard University

Harvard University
Harvard shield wreath.svg
Latin: Universitas Harvardiana
Former names
Harvard College
MottoVeritas (Latin)[1]
Motto in English
Truth
TypePrivate research university
Established1636 (1636)[2]
FounderMassachusetts General Court
AccreditationNECHE
Academic affiliations
AAU
NAICU
AICUM
URA
Space-grant
Endowment$53.2 billion (2021)[3]
PresidentLawrence Bacow
ProvostAlan Garber
Academic staff
~2,400 faculty members (and >10,400 academic appointments in affiliated teaching hospitals)[4]
Students19,218 (Fall 2020)[5]
Undergraduates5,222 (Fall 2020)[5]
Postgraduates13,996 (Fall 2020)[5]
Location,
U.S.

42°22′28″N 71°07′01″W / 42.37444°N 71.11694°W / 42.37444; -71.11694Coordinates: 42°22′28″N 71°07′01″W / 42.37444°N 71.11694°W / 42.37444; -71.11694
CampusUrban, 209 acres (85 ha)
LanguageMostly English
NewspaperThe Harvard Crimson
Colors  Crimson[4]
NicknameHarvard Crimson
Sporting affiliations
NCAA Division IIvy League
MascotJohn Harvard
Websitewww.harvard.edu
Logotype of Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636 as Harvard College and named for its first benefactor, the Puritan clergyman John Harvard, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and among the most prestigious in the world.[6]

The Massachusetts colonial legislature authorized Harvard's founding, "dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches, when our present ministers shall lie in the dust"; though never formally affiliated with any denomination, in its early years Harvard College primarily trained Congregational clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, it had emerged as the central cultural establishment among the Boston elite.[7][8] Following the American Civil War, President Charles William Eliot's long tenure (1869–1909) transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university; Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.[9] James B. Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II, and liberalized admissions after the war.

The university is composed of ten academic faculties plus the Harvard Radcliffe Institute. Arts and Sciences offers study in a wide range of academic disciplines for undergraduates and for graduates, while the other faculties offer only graduate degrees, mostly professional. Harvard has three main campuses:[10] the 209-acre (85 ha) Cambridge campus centered on Harvard Yard; an adjoining campus immediately across the Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston; and the medical campus in Boston's Longwood Medical Area.[11] Harvard's endowment is valued at $53.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution.[3] Endowment income helps enable the undergraduate college to admit students regardless of financial need and provide generous financial aid with no loans.[12] The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding about 20.4 million items.[13][14][15][16]

Harvard alumni, faculty, and researchers have included numerous Nobel laureates, Fields Medalists, members of the U.S. Congress, MacArthur Fellows, Rhodes Scholars, Marshall Scholars, and Fulbright Scholars, all of which are arguably the most among all higher education institutions over the globe, depending upon the metrics a list adopts.[17] Its alumni include eight U.S. presidents and 188 living billionaires, the most of any university. Fourteen Turing Award laureates have been Harvard affiliates. Students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes, and 110 Olympic medals (46 gold), and they have founded many notable companies.

  1. ^ Samuel Eliot Morison (1968). The Founding of Harvard College. Harvard University Press. p. 329. ISBN 978-0-674-31450-4. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved October 17, 2020.
  2. ^ An appropriation of £400 toward a "school or college" was voted on October 28, 1636 (OS), at a meeting which convened on September 8 and was adjourned to October 28. Some sources consider October 28, 1636 (OS) (November 7, 1636 NS) to be the date of founding. Harvard's 1936 tercentenary celebration treated September 18 as the founding date, though 1836 bicentennial was celebrated on September 8, 1836. Sources: meeting dates, Quincy, Josiah (1860). History of Harvard University. 117 Washington Street, Boston: Crosby, Nichols, Lee and Co. ISBN 9780405100161.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link), p. 586 Archived September 6, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, "At a Court holden September 8th, 1636 and continued by adjournment to the 28th of the 8th month (October, 1636)... the Court agreed to give £400 towards a School or College, whereof £200 to be paid next year...." Tercentenary dates: "Cambridge Birthday". Time. September 28, 1936. Archived from the original on December 5, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2006.: "Harvard claims birth on the day the Massachusetts Great and General Court convened to authorize its founding. This was Sept. 8, 1637 under the Julian calendar. Allowing for the ten-day advance of the Gregorian calendar, Tercentenary officials arrived at Sept. 18 as the date for the third and last big Day of the celebration;" "on Oct. 28, 1636 ... £400 for that 'school or college' [was voted by] the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony." Bicentennial date: Marvin Hightower (September 2, 2003). "Harvard Gazette: This Month in Harvard History". Harvard University. Archived from the original on September 8, 2006. Retrieved September 15, 2006., "Sept. 8, 1836 – Some 1,100 to 1,300 alumni flock to Harvard's Bicentennial, at which a professional choir premieres "Fair Harvard." ... guest speaker Josiah Quincy Jr., Class of 1821, makes a motion, unanimously adopted, 'that this assembly of the Alumni be adjourned to meet at this place on September 8, 1936.'" Tercentary opening of Quincy's sealed package: The New York Times, September 9, 1936, p. 24, "Package Sealed in 1836 Opened at Harvard. It Held Letters Written at Bicentenary": "September 8th, 1936: As the first formal function in the celebration of Harvard's tercentenary, the Harvard Alumni Association witnessed the opening by President Conant of the 'mysterious' package sealed by President Josiah Quincy at the Harvard bicentennial in 1836."
  3. ^ a b Ma, Virginia. "Harvard's Endowment Soars to $53.2 Billion, Reports 33.6% Returns". The Harvard Crimson. Archived from the original on October 14, 2021. Retrieved October 14, 2021.
  4. ^ a b "Harvard University Graphic Identity Standards Manual" (PDF). July 14, 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 19, 2022. Retrieved June 25, 2022.
  5. ^ a b c "Common Data Set 2020–2021" (PDF). Office of Institutional Research. Harvard University. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 21, 2022. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  6. ^ *Keller, Morton; Keller, Phyllis (2001). Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University. Oxford University Press. pp. 463–481. ISBN 0-19-514457-0. Harvard's professional schools... won world prestige of a sort rarely seen among social institutions. [...] Harvard's age, wealth, quality, and prestige may well shield it from any conceivable vicissitudes.
  7. ^ Story, Ronald (1975). "Harvard and the Boston Brahmins: A Study in Institutional and Class Development, 1800–1865". Journal of Social History. 8 (3): 94–121. doi:10.1353/jsh/8.3.94. S2CID 147208647.
  8. ^ Farrell, Betty G. (1993). Elite Families: Class and Power in Nineteenth-Century Boston. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-1593-7.
  9. ^ "Member Institutions and years of Admission". aau.edu. Association of American Universities. Archived from the original on May 21, 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2010.
  10. ^ "Faculties and Allied Institutions" (PDF). harvard.edu. Office of the Provost, Harvard University. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2010. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
  11. ^ "Faculties and Allied Institutions" (PDF). Office of the Provost, Harvard University. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 23, 2013. Retrieved June 15, 2013.
  12. ^ Kurt, Daniel (October 25, 2021). "What Harvard Actually Costs". Investopedia. Archived from the original on June 27, 2021. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
  13. ^ "Harvard Library Annual Report FY 2013". Harvard University Library. 2013. Archived from the original on June 9, 2016. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
  14. ^ Cite error: The named reference largestlibs was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  15. ^ "Speaking Volumes". Harvard Gazette. The President and Fellows of Harvard College. February 26, 1998. Archived from the original on September 9, 1999.
  16. ^ Harvard Media Relations. "Quick Facts". Archived from the original on April 14, 2020. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  17. ^ * Universities all adopt different metrics to claim Nobel or other academic award affiliates, some generous while others conservative. The official Harvard count (around 40) only includes academicians affiliated at the time of winning the prize. Yet, the figure can be up to some 160 laureates if visitors and professors of various ranks are all included (the most generous criterium), as what some other universities do.