Guelphs and Ghibellines

Wars of the Guelphs and Ghibellines
Part of the Investiture Controversy

A 14th-century conflict between the militias of the Guelph and Ghibelline factions in the comune of Bologna, from the Croniche of Giovanni Sercambi of Lucca
Result 1st phase: Peace of Constance (1186)
2nd phase: Stalemate (1392)
Italian city-states and communes
1st phase

1st phase

Commanders and leaders
1st phase

1st phase

The Guelphs and Ghibellines (/ˈɡwɛlfs ...ˈɡɪbɪlnz/ GWELFS ... GHIB-il-ynze, US also /-lnz, -lɪnz/ -⁠eenz, -⁠inz; Italian: guelfi e ghibellini [ˈɡwɛlfi e ɡibelˈliːni, -fj e -]) were factions supporting respectively the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor in the Italian city-states of Central Italy and Northern Italy during the Middle Ages.

During the 12th and 13th centuries, rivalry between these two parties dominated political life across medieval Italy. The struggle for power between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire arose with the Investiture Controversy, which began in 1075 and ended with the Concordat of Worms in 1122.

  1. ^ Angelov, Dimiter (2019). The Byzantine Hellene: The Life of Emperor Theodore Laskaris and Byzantium in the Thirteenth Century. Cambridge University Press. p.89.
  2. ^ Ippolito, Antonio Menniti (2005). Treccani (ed.). Guelfi e Ghibellini (in Italian).
  3. ^ Faini 2006, pp. 7–36
  4. ^ Jacques, Tony (2007). Greenwood Publishing Group (ed.). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A-E. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 209. ISBN 9780313335372.