Crimea

Crimean Peninsula
Satellite picture of Crimea, Terra-MODIS, 05-16-2015.jpg
May 2015 satellite image of the Crimean Peninsula
Crimea (orthographic projection).svg
Geography
LocationEastern Europe
Coordinates45°18′N 34°24′E / 45.3°N 34.4°E / 45.3; 34.4Coordinates: 45°18′N 34°24′E / 45.3°N 34.4°E / 45.3; 34.4
Adjacent bodies of water
Area27,000 km2 (10,000 sq mi)
Highest elevation1,545 m (5069 ft)
Highest pointRoman-Kosh
StatusControlled and (except recently occupied part of Arabat Spit) governed as part of the Russian Federation, though internationally recognised as part of Ukraine
Ukraine (de jure)
Uncontested regionsKherson Oblast (northern part of Arabat Spit, Henichesk Raion)
Contested regionsAutonomous Republic of Crimea
Sevastopol
Largest settlementSevastopol
Russia (de facto, though claims only a part of the controlled area)
Federal districtSouthern Federal District
Federal subjectsRepublic of Crimea
Sevastopol
Largest settlementSevastopol
Demographics
DemonymCrimean
PopulationIncrease 2,416,856[1] (2021)
Pop. density84.6/km2 (219.1/sq mi)
Ethnic groups65.3% Russians (1.492 mln)
15.1% Ukrainians (344.5 thousand)
10.8% Crimean Tatars (246.1 thousand)
0.9% Belarusians (21.7 thousand)
0.5% Armenians (11 thousand)
7.4% Others (169.1 thousand), including:
Pontic Greeks
Krymchaks
Crimean Karaites
Ashkenazi Jews
Crimea Germans
Italians of Crimea (2014)[2][3][4]
Map of the Crimean Peninsula
The Flag of Crimea (used by both Ukraine as the flag of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and by Russia as the flag of the Republic of Crimea)

Crimea[a] (/krˈmə/ (listen) kry-MEE) is a peninsula in Eastern Europe. It is situated along the northern coast of the Black Sea, and has a population of 2.4 million,[1] made up mostly of ethnic Russians with significant Ukrainian and Crimean Tatar minorities,[2] among others. The peninsula is almost entirely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov; it is located south of Kherson Oblast (which is partially controlled by Russia) in Ukraine, to which it is connected by the Isthmus of Perekop, and west of Krasnodar Krai in Russia, from which it is separated by the Strait of Kerch though linked by the Crimean Bridge since 2018. The Arabat Spit is located to its northeast, a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash from the Sea of Azov. Across the Black Sea to the west lies Romania and to the south is Turkey.

Crimea (called the Tauric Peninsula until the early modern period) has historically been at the boundary between the classical world and the steppe. Greeks colonised its southern fringe and were absorbed by the Roman and Byzantine Empires and successor states while remaining culturally Greek. Some cities became trading colonies of Genoa, until conquered by the Ottoman Empire. Throughout this time the interior was occupied by a changing cast of steppe nomads and eventually became part of the Golden Horde with the Crimean Khanate emerging as a successor state which itself became a dependency of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, often raiding Russia for slaves. Russia annexed Crimea in 1783 after an earlier war with Turkey. Crimea's strategic position led to the 1854 Crimean War and many short lived regimes following the 1917 Russian Revolution. When the Bolsheviks secured Crimea it became an autonomous soviet republic within Russia. During World War II, Crimea was downgraded to an oblast and the Crimean Tatars were deported. The USSR transferred Crimea to Ukraine on the 300th anniversary of the Pereyaslav Treaty in 1954. After Ukrainian independence in 1991 the central government and Crimea clashed, culminating in Ukraine forcibly bringing Crimea under control. The Soviet fleet in Crimea was also in contention but a 1997 treaty allowed Russia to continue basing its fleet in Sevastopol. In 2014 pro Russians seized control organising a referendum supporting Russian annexation but most countries recognise Crimea as Ukrainian.

  1. ^ a b Численность населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2021 года [The population of the Russian Federation by municipalities as of January 1, 2021]. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Archived from the original (XLS) on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 April 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "Катастрофический фактор | Все блоги | Блоги | Каспаров.Ru". Kasparov.ru. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)


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