Chemical nomenclature

Chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds. The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).

IUPAC Nomenclature ensures that each compound (and its various isomers) have only one formally accepted name known as the systematic IUPAC name, however, some compounds may have alternative names that are also accepted, known as the recommended IUPAC name which is generally taken from the common name of that compound. Preferably, the name should also represent the structure or chemistry of a compound.

For example, the main constituent of white vinegar is CH
3
COOH
, which is commonly called acetic acid and is also its recommended IUPAC name, but its formal, systematic IUPAC name is ethanoic acid.

The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book[1][2] and the Red Book,[3] respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book,[4] recommends the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP), while a fourth, the Gold Book,[5] defines many technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry[6] (the White Book, in association with the IUBMB), analytical chemistry[7] (the Orange Book), macromolecular chemistry[8] (the Purple Book), and clinical chemistry[9] (the Silver Book). These "color books" are supplemented by specific recommendations published periodically in the journal Pure and Applied Chemistry.

  1. ^ "1958 (A: Hydrocarbons, and B: Fundamental Heterocyclic Systems), 1965 (C: Characteristic Groups)", Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry (3rd ed.), London: Butterworths, 1971, ISBN 978-0-408-70144-0.
  2. ^ Rigaudy, J.; Klesney, S. P., eds. (1979). Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry. IUPAC/Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08022-3699.. Panico, R.; Powell, W. H.; Richer, J. C., eds. (1993). A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds. IUPAC/Blackwell Science. ISBN 0-632-03488-2.. IUPAC, Chemical Nomenclature and Structure Representation Division (27 October 2004). Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry (Provisional Recommendations). IUPAC.
  3. ^ International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (2005). Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (IUPAC Recommendations 2005). Cambridge (UK): RSCIUPAC. ISBN 0-85404-438-8. Electronic version..
  4. ^ International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (1993). Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry, 2nd edition, Oxford: Blackwell Science. ISBN 0-632-03583-8. Electronic version..
  5. ^ Compendium of Chemical Terminology, IMPACT Recommendations (2nd Ed.), Oxford:Blackwell Scientific Publications. (1997)
  6. ^ Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, London: Portland Press, 1992.
  7. ^ International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (1998). Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature (definitive rules 1997, 3rd. ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Science. ISBN 0-86542-6155.
  8. ^ Compendium of Macromolecular Nomenclature, Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1991.
  9. ^ Compendium of Terminology and Nomenclature of Properties in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, IMPACT Recommendations 1995, Oxford: Blackwell Science, 1995, ISBN 978-0-86542-612-2.