Arabian Peninsula

Arabian Peninsula
ٱلْجَزِيرَة ٱلْعَرَبِيَّة  (Arabic)
شِبْه ٱلْجَزِيرَة ٱلْعَرَبِيَّة  (Arabic)
Arabian Peninsula (orthographic projection).png
Area3,237,500 km2 (1,250,000 sq mi)
Population86,222,000
Population density26.6/km2
HDI0.788 (2018)
high
DemonymArabian
Countries
Largest cities
Satellite view of the Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula,[1] (/əˈrbiən .../; Arabic: شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, shibhu l-jazīrati l-ʿarabiyyah, "Arabian Peninsula" or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, jazīratu l-ʿarab, "Island of the Arabs")[2] or Arabia, is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At 3,237,500 km2 (1,250,000 sq mi), the Arabian Peninsula is the largest peninsula in the world.[3][4][5][6][7]

Geographically, the Arabian Peninsula includes Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen, as well as the southern portions of Iraq and Jordan.[8] The largest of these is Saudi Arabia.[9]

The Arabian Peninsula formed as a result of the rifting of the Red Sea between 56 and 23 million years ago, and is bordered by the Red Sea to the west and southwest, the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the northeast, the Levant and Mesopotamia to the north and the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean to the southeast. The peninsula plays a critical geopolitical role in the Arab world and globally due to its vast reserves of oil and natural gas.

Before the modern era, the region was divided into primarily four distinct regions: the Central Plateau (Najd or Al-Yamama), South Arabia, Al-Bahrain (Eastern Arabia or Al-Hassa), and the Hejaz (Tihamah for the western coast), as described by Ibn al-Faqih.[10]


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  1. ^ Hopkins, Daniel J.; Staff, Merriam-Webster; 편집부 (2001). Merriam Webster's Geographical Dictionary. Merriam-Webster (Third ed.). p. 61. ISBN 978-0877795469.
  2. ^ "Arabia | peninsula, Asia". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  3. ^ Niz, Ellen Sturm (10 April 2006). Peninsulas. Capstone. p. 19. ISBN 9780736861427.
  4. ^ McColl, R. W. (14 May 2014). Encyclopedia of World Geography. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 9780816072293.
  5. ^ Condra, Jill (9 April 2013). Encyclopedia of National Dress: Traditional Clothing Around the World [2 Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313376375.
  6. ^ Dodge, Christine Huda (1 April 2003). The Everything Understanding Islam Book: A Complete and Easy to Read Guide to Muslim Beliefs, Practices, Traditions, and Culture. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781605505459.
  7. ^ "15 Largest Peninsulas in the World". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  8. ^ Geopolitics of the World System – Page 337, Saul Bernard Cohen – 2003
  9. ^ Zaken, Ministerie van Buitenlandse (14 May 2017). "Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – Doing business in the Gulf region – netherlandsworldwide.nl". www.netherlandsworldwide.nl. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  10. ^ Ibn al-Faqih (c. 903). Mukhtasar Kitab al-Buldan (in Arabic). Retrieved 20 April 2021.