Native name:
Anadolu, Άνατολή
One definition of Anatolia within modern Turkey, excluding most of Southeastern and Eastern Anatolia Region.[1][2] Other definitions are coterminous with Turkey's eastern and southern border.
Etymology"the East", from Greek
Coordinates39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35Coordinates: 39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35
Area756,000 km2 (292,000 sq mi)[3]
(incl. Southeastern and Eastern Anatolia Region)
Largest cityAnkara (pop. 5,700,000[4])
LanguagesTurkish, Kurdish, Armenian, Arabic, Greek, Aramaic, Kabardian, various others
Ethnic groupsTurks, Kurds, Armenians, Arabs, Greeks, Assyrian people, Laz, various others
Additional information
Time zone

Anatolia,[a] also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It constitutes the major part of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Turkish Straits to the northwest, the Black Sea to the north, the Armenian Highlands to the east, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, and the Aegean Sea to the west. The Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean seas through the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the Balkan peninsula of Southeast Europe.

The eastern border of Anatolia has been held to be a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea, bounded by the Armenian Highlands to the east and Mesopotamia to the southeast. By this definition Anatolia comprises approximately the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. Today, Anatolia is sometimes considered to be synonymous with Asian Turkey, thereby including the western part of the Armenian Highlands and northern Mesopotamia[5] and making its eastern and southern borders coterminous with Turkey's borders.[6][7][8]

The ancient Anatolian peoples spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages of the Indo-European language family, which were largely replaced by the Greek language during classical antiquity as well as during the Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine periods. The major Anatolian languages included Hittite, Luwian, and Lydian, while other, poorly attested local languages included Phrygian and Mysian. Hurro-Urartian languages were spoken in the southeastern kingdom of Mitanni, while Galatian, a Celtic language, was spoken in Galatia, central Anatolia. The Turkification of Anatolia began under the rule of the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century and it continued under the rule of the Ottoman Empire between the late 13th and the early 20th century and it has continued under the rule of today's Republic of Turkey. However, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Neo-Aramaic, Armenian, Arabic, Laz, Georgian and Greek. Other ancient peoples in the region included Galatians, Hurrians, Assyrians, Hattians, Cimmerians, as well as Ionian, Dorian, and Aeolic Greeks.

  1. ^ Hopkins, Daniel J.; Staff, Merriam-Webster; 편집부 (2001). Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary. p. 46. ISBN 0-87779-546-0. Archived from the original on 28 November 2021. Retrieved 18 May 2001.
  2. ^ Stephen Mitchell (1995). Anatolia: Land, Men, and Gods in Asia Minor. The Celts in Anatolia and the impact of Roman rule. Clarendon Press, 266 pp. ISBN 978-0198150299 [1] Archived 29 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Sansal, Burak. "History of Anatolia". Archived from the original on 6 April 2002. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  4. ^ "Turkish Statistical Institute The Results of Address Based Population Registration System 2017". Archived from the original on 2 May 2019. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
  5. ^ Hooglund, Eric (2004). "Anatolia". Archived copy. Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Macmillan/Gale. Archived from the original on 15 May 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2012 – via Anatolia comprises more than 95 percent of Turkey's total land area.{{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ Khatchadourian, Lori (5 September 2011). McMahon, Gregory; Steadman, Sharon (eds.). "The Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia". The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia. 1. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195376142.013.0020. Archived from the original on 6 December 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  7. ^ Adalian, Rouben Paul (2010). Historical dictionary of Armenia (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. pp. 336–38. ISBN 978-0810874503. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  8. ^ Mørkholm, Otto (1991). Grierson, Philip; Westermark, Ulla (eds.). Early Hellenistic Coinage from the Accession of Alexander to the Peace of Apamea (336–188 B.C.) (Repr. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 175. ISBN 978-0521395045. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 20 June 2015.

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