Coordinates: 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20

Republic of Poland
Rzeczpospolita Polska  (Polish)
Anthem: Mazurek Dąbrowskiego
"Poland Is Not Yet Lost"
EU-Poland (orthographic projection).svg
Location of Poland (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union (green)  –  [Legend]

and largest city
52°13′N 21°02′E / 52.217°N 21.033°E / 52.217; 21.033
Official languagePolish[1]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Andrzej Duda
Mateusz Morawiecki
14 April 966
18 April 1025
1 July 1569
24 October 1795
11 November 1918
17 September 1939
19 February 1947
31 December 1989[5]
• Total
312,696 km2 (120,733 sq mi)[6] (69th)
• Water (%)
1.48 (2015)[7]
• 2021 census
Neutral decrease 38,179,800[8] (38th)
• Density
123/km2 (318.6/sq mi) (83rd)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.525 trillion[9] (19th)
• Per capita
Increase $40,341[9] (39th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $720 billion[9] (22nd)
• Per capita
Increase $19,056[9] (44th)
Gini (2019)Negative increase 28.5[10]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.880[11]
very high · 35th
CurrencyZłoty (PLN)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+48
ISO 3166 codePL
Internet TLD.pl

Poland,[b] officially the Republic of Poland,[c] is a country in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative provinces called voivodeships, covering an area of 312,696 km2 (120,733 sq mi). Poland has a population of over 38 million and is the fifth-most populous member state of the European Union.[12] Warsaw is the nation's capital and largest metropolis. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.

Poland's territory extends from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Sudeten and Carpathian Mountains in the south. The country is bordered by Lithuania and Russia to the northeast,[d] Belarus and Ukraine to the east, Slovakia and the Czech Republic to the south, and Germany to the west. Poland also shares maritime boundaries with Denmark and Sweden.

The history of human activity on Polish soil spans thousands of years. Throughout the late antiquity period it became extensively diverse, with various cultures and tribes settling on the vast Central European Plain. However, it was the Polans who dominated the region and gave Poland its name. The establishment of Polish statehood can be traced to 966, when the pagan ruler of a realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland embraced Christianity and converted to Catholicism.[13] The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025 and in 1569 cemented its longstanding political association with Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin. The latter led to the forming of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous nations of 16th and 17th-century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system that adopted Europe's first modern constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.[14][15][16]

With the end of the prosperous Polish Golden Age, the country was partitioned by neighbouring states at the end of the 18th century. It regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles and restored its position as a key player in European politics. In September 1939, the German-Soviet invasion of Poland marked the beginning of World War II, which resulted in the Holocaust and millions of Polish casualties.[17][18] As a member of the Eastern Bloc, the Polish People's Republic proclaimed forthwith was a chief signatory of the Warsaw Pact amidst global Cold War tensions. In the wake of the 1989 events, notably through the emergence and contributions of the Solidarity movement, the communist government was dissolved and Poland re-established itself as a democratic republic.

Poland is a developed market[19] and a middle power; it has the sixth largest economy in the European Union by nominal GDP and the fifth largest by GDP (PPP). It provides very high standards of living, safety and economic freedom, as well as free university education and a universal health care system. The country has 17 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 15 of which are cultural.[20] Poland is a founding member state of the United Nations, as well as a member of the World Trade Organization, NATO, and the European Union (including the Schengen Area).

  1. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Poland, Article 27.
  2. ^ Struktura narodowo-etniczna, językowa i wyznaniowa ludności Polski. Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011 [National-ethnic, linguistic and religious structure of Poland. National Census of Population and Housing 2011] (PDF) (in Polish). Central Statistical Office. 2015. p. 36. ISBN 978-83-7027-597-6.
  3. ^ Struktura narodowo-etniczna, językowa i wyznaniowa ludności Polski. Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludności i Mieszkań 2011 [National-ethnic, linguistic and religious structure of Poland. National Census of Population and Housing 2011] (PDF) (in Polish). Central Statistical Office. 2015. p. 93. ISBN 978-83-7027-597-6.
  4. ^ Christian Smith (1996). Disruptive Religion: The Force of Faith in Social-movement Activism. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-91405-5. Retrieved 9 September 2013 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ "The Act of December 29, 1989 amending the Constitution of the Polish People's Republic". Internetowy System Aktów Prawnych. Retrieved 18 October 2020. (in Polish)
  6. ^ GUS. "Powierzchnia i ludność w przekroju terytorialnym w 2018 roku".
  7. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  8. ^ "Informacja o wstępnych wynikach Narodowego Spisu Powszechnego Ludności i Mieszkań 2021". Retrieved 29 January 2022.
  9. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  10. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  11. ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference CSO_2008 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference A Concise History of Poland was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ Norman Davies, Europe: A History, Pimlico 1997, p. 554: Poland–Lithuania was another country which experienced its 'Golden Age' during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The realm of the last Jagiellons was absolutely the largest state in Europe
  15. ^ Piotr Stefan Wandycz (2001). The price of freedom: a history of East Central Europe from the Middle Ages to the present. Psychology Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-415-25491-5. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
  16. ^ Gehler, Michael; Steininger, Rolf (2005). Towards a European Constitution: A Historical and Political Comparison with the United States. Böhlau Verlag Wien. p. 13. ISBN 978-3-205-77359-7. Poland had actually managed to pass a first progressive constitution on 3, May 1795; this was Europes first written constitution.
  17. ^ Tatjana Tönsmeyer; Peter Haslinger; Agnes Laba (2018). Coping with Hunger and Shortage under German Occupation in World War II. Springer. p. 188. ISBN 978-3-319-77467-1.
  18. ^ Materski & Szarota (2009)
  19. ^ "Poland promoted to developed market status by FTSE Russell". Emerging Europe. September 2018. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  20. ^ UNESCO World Heritage. "Poland". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 29 July 2021.

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